澳洲紐省政府機構與公民選舉

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【新唐人2011年3月23日訊】澳大利亞是一個美麗富饒的國家,秀美如畫的風景、海納百川的胸懷,吸納了來在世界上200多個國家的移民。而它所推行的多元文化的政策讓生活在這片沃土上的各族裔的人們享受到了同等的機會和待遇。
Australia is a beautiful and prosperous country. Its picture-like scenery and open-minded attitude have attracted migrants from over 200 countries worldwide. Australia』s multicultural policy has engaged people of various ethnicities who live in this rich land and enjoy equal opportunity and treatment.

無論是哪個國家的移民,在澳洲作為永久居民超過4年,就有資格可以成爲澳洲公民。無論他們的種族、文化、宗教、語言、性別與出生地,衹要是澳洲公民,就對國家的利益和未來承擔責任。
No matter what country migrants are from, they qualify as Australian citizens after living in Australia for over four years. No matter which ethnic background, culture, religion, language, gender or birth place people may have, they will become responsible to national interests and development once they become Australian citizens.

Mr.Stephen Sim -– Election Polling Booth Manager for Liberal Party
Here in Australia we are blessed with the right to vote something that we cherish very much, something that the people in China do not have and it is very dear to us and in Australia we have three governments for whom we elect. We have the Federal Government. The Federal Government looks after things such the economy, deference and all the national issues. We then have our State Governments we have NSW here Queensland, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia each of these states has a government. We also have our Local Government that takes care, it is like a village your local area, looks after the essential services such as your transport and your buildings this Saturday 26 of March it is every four year that we have the NSW State elections and everybody in NSW every adult who is registered to vote and when you do turn 18 you are required that you have to register and vote you have the opportunity to vote for against your local candidates.
在澳洲這裏我們擁有投票的權利,我們很珍惜這樣的權利,而在中國人們卻沒有這樣的權利。在澳洲,很珍貴的是,我們有三個政府供我們選擇。我們有聯邦政府。聯邦政府管理諸如經濟,過當和所有國家事務。我們然後還有州政府,我們新南威爾士就有,此外昆士蘭,維多利亞,南澳以及西奧都有這樣的政府。我們還有地方政府,比如像一個村莊這樣的地方,他們會管理一些重要的事務比如交通或住房。3月26日的這個星期六是每隔四年一次的的大選日,我們新南威爾士州立大選會在這天舉行。所有人,所有新南威爾士註冊投票的和滿18歲的成年人都必須參與註冊和投票,你有權力投票支持或反對你這個地方的侯選人。
Mr.Gordon Moyes– FAMILY FIRST PARTY MP
Well, I think the most important thing is to realize this country of Australia we have the right to vote. Every individual has the right. Although some people get lazy or don』t want to vote intelligently, they are forgetting that for centuries people died that men and women might have the right to vote and have their people in parliament. So its very important that every people who is an Australian citizen whether from overseas or from Australian born that they do vote and they do vote for what they want.
我想最重要的事情就是意識到在澳洲這個國家我們有權利投選票。每個人都有這個權利。雖然一些人很懶或者不懂得明智地投票,他們其實在忘記幾個世紀以來人們為男人和女人有權利投票並進入議會而犧牲了生命。所以這對於每一個澳洲公民都是很重要的,無論你運來是否來自海外還是出生在澳洲。人們能投票,並且按照他們的想法投票。

It’s a democratic system I recognized that many people in country overseas don』t have this privilege
我認識到這是個民主系統 ,許多海外國家的人民沒有這個特權。

we shouldn』t take the freedom for granted and we should make the most of it.
我們不應該空頂著自由的帽子,我們應該真正地去實踐它。

Mr.Stephen Sim -– Election Polling Booth Manager for Liberal Party
Here in NSW the State is divided into ninety three areas each of those they are called the electorate each of those roughly has 50 thousand voters, so in Sydney you have the areas that are quite small probably two or three suburbs put together so there are roughly 50 thousand voters or there about in the country areas where people are spread out those electorates are much bigger of cause but the still contain 50 thousand people.
新南威爾士這裏被劃分成93個地區,每個被稱為選區的地區大約有超過5萬的選民。在悉尼你會看到有些地區很小,大約由2-3個住宅區組成,大約會有5萬選民。在鄉村人們住的比較分散但是選區也劃的較大一些,所以還是會有大約5萬的選民。

Mr. Jonathan O‘Dea – Liberal MP 自由黨MP
There』s two houses in parliament, one is legislature of assembly, the other is legislature of council which is the house of review, review a lot of the legislation. The assembly has 93 members whereas the councils has 42.
有兩個議會,一個 是立法議會,另一個是立法委員會,就是審核議會,審核很多立法。議會有93個成員,委員會有42個。

Mr.David Shoebridge– Greens MP:
Many people sort of can』t really grasp how the NSW Parliament operates and I perfectly understand that, we have to chambers in NSW there is the Lower House called the Legislative Assembly and that is where the Premier and the opposition leader are normally found. You see pictures of them bickering on television in the lower house they are elected from districts all across NSW and there are 93 members elected from across NSW from individual districts that form the Lower House the Legislative Assembly and then we also have what is effectively the State Senate wich is the Upper House or the Legislative Council and that is the chamber that I am a member of. That is a 42 member chamber there are 42 members in that and it is effectively at a state level, the senate is at a federal level and it is elected from all across NSW so is no individual seats is what is called proportional representation and half the chamber gets elected every four year so coming up 21 members are up for election in this coming March election and they』ll for part of the NSW Upper House or NSW Senate.
我們事實上也有省參議院,就是上議院或議會上院,我就是其中的成員,那是一個42個成員的議會,有42個成員在裏面,它實際是省級的,參議員是聯邦一級的,它是從全新州選出來的,不是單個席位,是所謂的比例代表制,並且半數的成員每四年選一次,所以三月份21名成員會被重選,他們會形成新州的上議院或參議院

Mr. Jonathan O‘Dea – Liberal MP 自由黨MP
The legislature of assembly is very important in considering laws that are debated and passéd for our state of nsw as well as debating important issues of the day and holding the govt to account from an opposition perspective.
立法議會很重要,在考量新州被辯論和通過的法律上,在辯論時下重要的議題上,以及從在野黨的角度讓政府負責上。

Mr. David Shoebridge Greens MP in the NSW Upper House :
What you need an Upper House for is to actually apply some independent scrutiny to what the government of the day is doing, keep an eye on things you know a real check and balance of the political system because traditional here in NSW the Upper House has not been controlled by the government of the day there is being a series of crossbenches who held a balance of power in the NSW Upper House.
你需要上議院是為了獨立監督政府的所為,關注一些事情,你知道,真正的監察,當下政治體系的平衡,因為傳統上在新州,上議院不受當權政府的控 制, 有一系列的無黨派議席在新州上議院維持著權力均衡.

Ms. Linda Burney — Labor MP
08:30 the minister within the govt is the person that is a member of cabinet. They have a very very important and highly responsible role to make decisions about what legislation, what law will be introduced into the parliament. You are also responsible for a department. generally from me, the department of community services , it is also the executive of government. it is the …the ministers are the senior people within govt. so it is a very very very important role.
政府中的部長是內閣成員,在決定向國會提交什麼立法、那種法律上,他們起著非常重要的作用。他們通常也負責一個部門,就像我,負責社區服務部,它也是政府的行政機關。所以部長們是政府部門的高級官員,它是個很重要的角色。

Vo: 澳洲公民必須參加投票選舉,這是強制性的。每一位選民的投票,對於候選人來説,都是至關重要的。因爲澳洲實行的是「優先選票制」

Australians have to vote and it』s compulsory. Each vote for the candidates is essential, as Australia uses the 「preferential voting」 electoral system.

Mr. Jonathan O‘Dea – Liberal MP 自由黨MP
in each electorate there are about 46000 people who are eligible to vote and you have to get a majority of those votes after preferences have been distributed. Nsw is not compulsory to get preferences so you can just vote 1, that』s certainly what I will advocate in my electorate. You can just vote 1, not surprisingly. They can just vote 1 for Jonathan O’Dea. Certainly, you have the option of providing a preference vote and if the no 1 vote is knock out it can be passed on to another candidate. But after all the valid votes had tallied up whoever has the majority of votes after you eliminate those who did not get many votes, you come down to 2 candidates and ultimately one candidate has the majority of those valid votes. They are the elected member for the legislative of assembly for the lower house in parliament. of the 93 seats are decided in that way. The party that is able to bring together the majority of the seats then gets to form govt.
每個選區大約有46000人有資格投票,在候選人的優先度被計算出來後,你就必須得到大部分的選票。新南威爾士不是強制性地 實行優先選舉,所以你可以只投一票,那肯定也是我在我的選區要提倡的做法。你可以只投一票,這不奇怪。他們可以只投一票給Jonathan O‘Dea。當然,你也可以選擇采用優先選舉投票,如果你的第一候選人被淘汰出局,這張票還可以被你單子上的其他候選人使用。但是畢竟當那些沒有得到多少選票的人出局後,所有有效的選票會使那些得到大多數選票的人得到更多選票,在兩個候選人之間競爭,最終剩下的那個候選人會得到絕大多數的有效選票。他們會成為下議院立法院的正式成員。93個席位就是那樣生成的。能夠獲得絕大多數席位的政黨就會組閣政府。

Mr. Stephen Sim– Election Polling Booth Manager for Liberal Party
preference vote was introduced at the end of the previous century we had it in vogue in the election in Australia for about one hundred years and I sort out this little card for you three candidates: Peter Jones, John Smith and Greg Rogers. Now lest say Peter Jones gets 22.500 votes then John Smith comes second with 17.000 and Greg Rogers with 10.000 that total 50.000 votes in the election this are all total after the night at the end of the ballot. You can see that Peter Jones has 45% of the votes and John Smith has 35% and Greg Smith has 20% and you may say well that is good Peter Jones is elected. No he is not the reason we have preference voting is because although 45% of the people want him to be their Member in Parliament 55% don』t want him they voted against him. They don』t want him. So what they do you can vote preference so those who vote for Greg put one on their ballot paper, two for John and three for Peter so when Greg is eliminated all his votes go to John and you add the 35% to the 20% so well that is how John Smith can get elected because as the other people miss out their votes get added on after counting so that is how preference votes happen.
優先選舉在上世紀末開始被采用,這在澳洲過去一百年的投票史上很流行。比如我把給這三位候選人-Peter Jones, John Smith 和 Greg Rogers- 的選票整理出來後,比如Peter Jones得到22500張選票,John Smith得到17000張選票位居第二,Greg Rogers得到10000張選票,這些就是在大選最後那個夜晚後在這次選舉中的總共5萬張選票。你可以看到Peter Jones有45%的選票,John Smith有35%的選票,而Greg Smith有20%的選票。你獲取會說Peter Jones最有可能贏得大選。但是他不是的。我們采用優先選舉的原因就是因為雖然有45%的人希望他能成為議會議員但是有其他55%的人卻不希望他當選。接下來就是采用優先選舉法,所以那些把Greg作為他們首選,把John排在第二把Peter排在第三的人,當Greg出局後所有這些人的選票都會到John手上,所以你把John本身的35%加上Greg的20% ,你就可以看到John Smith是如何贏得大選的,因為當一個候選人出局後,他的選票就會自動加載到第二名身上,這樣就實現了優先選舉。

Vo: 如果你在選舉當天因為不再選區內、生病等原因無法參加投票,可以選擇郵寄或者提前投票的方式。那麼應該如何填寫選票、什麼樣的選票才是有效的呢?

If you are not in your electorate on Election Day because of illness or other reasons, and you can’t vote. Can you choose to mail your vote or vote early? So how should we fill in the ballot papers for it to count?

Mr. Stephen Sim – Election Polling Booth Manager for Liberal Party
We are now inside the actual polling place here for the pre-polling for Lane cove. It』s a building in Gladesville and this is the actual vote card you are issued with. What happens, the voter goes inside that room there, they are then have their name tick off the roll or in the computer, they are then given one of this. This is the lower house of the parliament….into one of those booths and then they vote from there.
我們現在就在投票的地方,是Lane cove選區的預投點。這是在Gladesville裏的一幢建築,這就是你要用的投票卡。這裏要發生的就是選民到那個屋裏去,然後他們的名字從名冊上被劃掉,或者是在電腦上被劃掉,他們就會拿到一張卡。這是下議會下議院…進到其中一個投票箱,然後他們就在那裏投票。

This is the upper house and there are 311 candidates. They can either vote above the line here, make a vote… you can even vote for every candidate and that means you have to vote from 1 to 311. If you put 2 1s or go 1,2 3, 5 9 11 and so on, it becomes invalid vote. Its worthless. So to save for people having to vote for all those candidates, what they ask you to do these days is just to vote 1 above that line, above the big blue line for the political party which you support. Those votes will be distributed to those candidates.
這是上議院,總共有311個候選人。他們可以要麼就在這跟線前面這裏投票,投他們的選票…你甚至開可以為每一個候選人投票,那意味著你要從1投到第311。如果你只投第21或象1,2 3, 5 9 11這樣寫選票,那就是無效選票。那是沒有意義的。所以為了讓那些想要為所有候選人投票的選民節省精力和時間,他們在現在會讓你做的就是在這條線前面投一票,在這條藍色的粗線前面投你支持的政黨。然後這些票會分發到每個那裏面的候選人手裏。

Very important to understand too that the political parties who are listed all the way across. Look at how many political parties we have, an independent group here, there』s 1 ..the labour party here , the liberal party is somewhere there.
非常重要的就是也要懂得在冊的政黨被沒有按順序排列。看這裏我們有多少個政黨,這裏有一個獨立黨,這裏還有一個,工黨在這裏,自由黨大概在那裏。

As with the lower house of parliament where you have the Christian Democrats candidate, the labour party ..the liberal, the independent for the greens, sorry the greens candidates. Their names are put into the hat, with the nomination close then put into a barrel and the names are drawn out in order. First one out goes to the top of the polling paper, 2nd 3rd and so on. Same applies for the upper house of parliament.
在議會下議院裏有基督民主候選人,工黨…自由黨,獨立綠黨,抱歉,是綠黨候選人。候選人的名字被放進一個帽子裏和提名一起被封好,然後再放進一個桶裏,然後這些名字再按順序被取出。第一個出來的就放在投票列表的頂端,然後再排第二個,第三個等等。上議院也是這樣操作的。

Vo: 對於大多數人來説,並不十分瞭解候選人是如何產生的,或者説是毫無概念。
Most people do not fully understand how candidates are found, or they simply have no idea.

Mr.David Shoebridge –Greens MP in the NSW Upper House
The traditional way of getting elected here in NSW has been to join a political party and be put forward after a p reselection as a candidate for a political party. So you can join the Labor Party and be put forward after you get the support of the Labor Party as a candidate for the Labor Party or the Liberal Party, National Party or the NSW Greens. The Greens are unique in terms of political parties here in NSW all of our positions so all of the preselected every candidate that you see standing for the Greens have been chosen by the members. We don』t have a centralized committee that determines who should be candidate. All of our positions are chosen by ballot by the members so that is a traditional way for becoming a member of a political party and getting the support of a political party but you can also stand as an independent you know you don』t have to be aligned with a political party and to stand as an Independent in the Lower House you need to find fifteen other people from that electorate who are on the roll who』ll nominate you in the lower house and in the Upper House you just need to find fifteen people from across the state who are on the roll to nominate you as an Independent and then you go on the ticket.
在這裏新南威爾士傳統的選舉方式就是要加入一個政黨,然後在被預選成代表該政黨的候選人後備提名。所以你可以加入工黨然後在你獲得工黨內部支持成為一個候選人後被提名,自由黨,國家黨或新南威爾士綠黨也是一樣。綠黨在所有政黨中是獨特的,在這裏新南威爾士我們所有的位置,所有與選出來的候選人,你可以看見代表綠黨的,都是黨員選出來的。我們沒有核心委員會來決定誰來當候選人。所有的我們的位置都是被黨員們投票選舉出來的。這是成為一個政黨成員和獲得一個政黨支持的傳統做法。但是你也可以成為獨立候選人,你知道你不會去依附於任何政黨。要成為下議院的獨立議員,你必須在一個選區內獲得15個名冊上的人的提名,提名你成為獨立候選人,然後你就會在選票上出現。

Vo:在紐省2011年的選舉中,共有工黨Labor ,Coalition聯盟黨, Christian Democrats基督教民主黨, Greens綠黨, Family First家庭第一黨,等黨派參加外,還有獨立候選人。每個選區的候選人不等。
During the 2011 NSW state elections, there is Labor, the Coalition, Christian Democrats, Greens, Family First, other parties and the Independents. There are a range of candidates for each electorate.

Mr. Anthony Roberts -– Liberal MP 自由黨MP
I‘ve been in nsw visiting communities, visiting ethnic groups and telling them the same message that nsw are our assets, our factories. They are not our mines. Our assets are our people. The people of nsw is our great assets of this contry.
我在新南威爾士訪問了很多社區,不同族裔的社團,告訴他們同樣的信息:新南威爾士是我們的資本,是我們的工廠。他不是我們的礦區。我們的資本就是我們的人民。新南威爾士的人民是我們這個國家最偉大的資本。

Labour traditionally is opposed to small business and as we know in the chinese community trade, people from chinese background are great small business people. And what they want to do is get on with their life, employ people and look after their families. And that』s what the Liberal National Coalition[LNC] is about.We share the same ideals the people of chinese origin has and that is we believe in a strong family unit, we believe in enterprise and we believe that if you are prepared to work hard you should be rewarded.
工黨向來是反對小生意的,因為我們知道中國社區的經營,具有亞裔背景的人們很擅長小生意。他們想做的就是能夠支橕起他們自己的生活,雇傭幾個人,照顧好他們自己的家庭。這就是自由國家同盟的意義所在。我們和有亞裔背景的人們有相同的想法,我們相信強大的家庭單位,我們相信企業,我們相信如果你準備艱苦的工作,你就應該獲得回報。

Mr. David Shoebridge —Greens MP 綠黨MP
Well we have quite a distinct set of values in terms of the politics here in NSW and federally. We have a fundamental belief in ecological sustainability that means we really need to think about the environment when we make long term decisions.
我們對新州和聯邦的政治有非常清晰的一套價值觀,我們有對生態維護的基本信念,就是說我們在做長期決策時需要考慮到環境.

We also believe in social justice, fundamental belief in social justice which means making sure we keep those key services in public hands. So we keep our well funded public hospitals, we keep our very well funded public schools system.
我們也相信社會公平,基本的對社會公平的信念意味著確保我們那些關鍵服務握於公眾之手,所以我們維護著配備良好的公立醫院和公立學校體系.

Mr. Gordon Moyes — FAMILY FIRST MP
I believe so, I’ve been here for 9 years therefore I must be re elected and I would asked all people who love the Chinese community , the Chinese culture who got compassion in their hearts for human rights and for persecuted people in different parts of the world to vote for me, family first with Gordon Moyes and Joseph Mack in order we might continue this work.
我也是這樣想的,我已經在這裏9年了所以我必須重新當選。我希望所有熱愛中國社區的人們,熱愛中國文化的並在心裏對人權擁有慈善的人們,那些在世界上不同地方遭受著迫害的人們投我們的票,家庭第一政黨Gordon Moyes和Joseph mack,以便我們能繼續這方面的工作。

My name is Marie Ficarra and I am the member for the upper house of NSW govt and I represent the liberal party. So basically the whole of NSW.
Look we have so many brilliant candidates. We are tracking how everyone is traveling. We are just absolutely so pleased that people are hearing our message and individual candidate are working very hard.

那麽,3月26日的紐省大選,到底花落誰家呢?讓我們拭目以待。
Well, the NSW state election is on March 26th. In the end who will get it? Let’s wait and see.

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