【禁聞】「史上最難就業年」頻現 中國怎麼辦?

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【新唐人2013年09月06日訊】今年中國的高校畢業生數量達到創記錄的699萬人,同時也迎來了「最難就業季」。在未來幾年,高校畢業生還會增加,再加上不斷增長的新生勞動力,就業難度還將持續。中共官員也承認,中國就業的艱鉅性和複雜性是任何國家都無法比擬的。甚麼原因導致這一現象呢?請看報導。

2013年中國高校畢業生人數達699萬,比2012年多19萬,創歷史新高。然而招聘崗位卻比往年下降15%。這一漲一落使得2013年成為「史上最難就業年」。

有媒體報導,中共人力資源和社會保障部官員也透露,今年可能有300萬以上的大學生難以實現初次就業。
  
此前有媒體報導說,截至五月,上海高校畢業生的就業率僅兩成﹔北京高校畢業生就業率不到四成﹔廣東畢業生簽約率僅三成,比較去年同期下降了10個百分點。

中共國家統計局的調查報告也顯示,大陸農民工總數達到26261萬人,也比上年增加983萬人,但就業只有16336萬人。

此外,未來5年間中國高校畢業生都會保持在700萬左右的規模,到2020年,20到59歲就業年齡層的人口將達8.31億的高峰。面對現狀,中共人力資源和社會保障部部長尹蔚民不得不承認,中國就業問題的艱鉅性和複雜性是任何國家都無法比擬的。

原《大公報》、《大週刊》新聞部主任朱健國認為,中國就業難是社會體制造成的,把民營企業、大學生自我創業的積極性都打消了。

政論專欄作家朱健國:「這種經濟環境的惡化與當局的堅持政治體制的中國特色,打擊民營企業,壓制民營企業,而給國有企業有特權,它與這樣一種政治倒退是有關的。」

朱健國表示,中共提出建設市場經濟已經有20年了,但到今天造出了一個腐敗、官僚控制的假市場經濟。嚴重的腐敗使得沒有人敢去創業,辛辛苦苦做一年實業還不如炒套房子賺錢。朱健國認為,中國就業難實際上是中共拖延政治體制改革帶來的惡果。

經濟專欄作家段紹譯也認同,市場經濟是最好的經濟制度,但中國經濟體制目前還存在很多問題。

經濟學者、北京師範大學MBA導師段紹譯:「整體來說,我覺得造成今天就業難的原因,第一點是國有企業掌握了太多的特權,使民營企業沒有得到公平的發展。」

根據中國企業聯合會統計,2012年「中國企業500強」總收入為44.9萬億元,相當於2011年GDP總量的95.3%,其中,310家國有及其控股企業佔81.87%。國資委資料也顯示,2011年僅117家中央企業的收入就相當於同年中國GDP總量的42.9%,但所有國有企業的就業人口只佔8.8%。

另外,國企高管的薪酬也反映了不平等:在2008年,中海油董事長年薪高達1204.7萬元﹔南方航空公司虧損48.29億,但是南航高管們的「腰包」反而增長近5成。

實際上,國有企業的特權也導致了這些壟斷行業效率的低下:中國的上網費用是發達地區的數倍,網速卻只有一半﹔中石油和中石化以不到世界原油1/10的開採成本,卻以高於其他主要國家31%的稅前價格,向公眾銷售同等品質的成品油。

民間智庫《北京天則經濟研究所》估計,僅在銀行、石油、電信、鐵路和食鹽等五個壟斷行業中,行政性壟斷帶來的社會福利損失就高達19104億元。

朱健國:「可悲的是官方現在把就業難僅僅當成經濟問題,當成一個就業問題。它不敢正視就業難背後的真正的癥結所在,那麼就只會貽誤治病的最後機會,最終讓這個社會走向崩潰。」

朱健國指出,目前中國社會的極度不公平、不公正,導致到處是戾氣和怨氣,由此不斷引發群體衝突。這樣下去是很危險的。

採訪/易如 編輯/宋風 後製/王明宇

Year 2013, China’s Toughest Employment Year

China saw 6.99 million college graduates in 2013,
as well as the toughest job season in history.
Reportedly, the number of college graduates
will grow in the next few years.
The figure, plus the new working-age population,
will make employment difficulties continue.
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) officials have
alleged to face an unparalleled difficult job market.
What is the reason behind it?
Let’s take a look at our report.

In 2013, China’s college graduates had peaked
at 6.99 million, an increase of 190,000 over 2012.
In contrast, job offers are down by 15%.
2013 has become “the toughest employment year" in history.

Reportedly, the CCP senior Human Resources officials have
said in 2013, over 3 million college grads may not get a job.

Earlier on, media reported that by May, only 20% of
recent graduates in Shanghai found jobs.
In Beijing, the figure was less than 40%.
In Guangzhou, it was 30%, 10% below that in 2012.

An official survey shows that China’s migrant workers
have reached over 260 million,
an increase in over 9.8 million in 2012.
Yet, only about 160 million of them are employed.

The survey indicates that in the next five years, China’s
colleges will maintain its graduates size of 7 million.
By 2020, China’s working-age population (20~59 years old)
will have peaked at 831 million.

Yin Weimin, the Human Resources Minister has openly
said that China’s employment issue is difficult and
complex, which is unparalleled in the world.

Former Hong Kong news director of Ta Kung Pao and
Da Zhou Kan, Zhu Jianguo, comments.
He says China’s tough job market is a result of
its current social and political system.
The system has eliminated self-employment enthusiasm
of private enterprises and of college graduates.

Zhu Jianguo: “The current economic deterioration is
related to its political system with Chinese characteristics.
The system cracks down on private enterprises,
but it entitles state-owned enterprises to privileges,
it is a political setback."

Zhu Jianguo says that 20 years have passed since the
CCP proposed to build an economy market in China.
Today, it has created a false market economy,
which is corrupt and bureaucratically controlled.
Serious corruption has scared away
people’s enterprising spirit.
A one-year effort in establishing a business earns
less than the gains pocketed from property speculation.
Zhu adds that China’s harsh employment situation has
actually resulted from the CCP’s delaying political reform.

Economist Duan Shaoyi thinks that a market economy
is the best economic system.
Yet, China’s economic system still has a lot of problems.

Duan Shaoyi: “Overall, I think one of the reasons
behind current employment difficulty is that
state owned enterprise (SOE)
have been given too many privileges.
Private enterprise have lacked
equitable chances for their development."

Data from the China Association of Enterprises shows that

in 2012, total revenues generated by China’s top 500
enterprises were about 45 trillion yuan.
It was equivalent to 95.3% of China’s GDP in 2011.
About 82% of the revenue came from 310 SOEs.
Official data shows that in 2011, 117 central SOEs
contributed to nearly 43% of the total GDP.
Yet, the number of SOEs staff only accounts for
8.8% of the total employed population.

SOE executives’ income has also exposed inequality.
In 2008, president of China National Offshore Oil Corp.
earned over 12 million yuan.
Southern Airlines, with an over 4.8-billion-yuan deficit,
gave its executives a 50% pay-rise.

In reality, the SOE privileges have led to low efficiency.

Internet access charges in China are several times
higher than that in developed countries.
Whilst the average broadband speed is only half.

The pre-tax price of refined oil sold by Petro China
and Sinopec are 31% higher than in western countries.
Yet, its mining cost is below 1/10 of the global norm.

Beijing-based Unirule Institute of Economics
has made an estimate.
In China’s five areas of banking, petroleum,
telecommunications, railways and table salts,
the administrative monopoly has caused a loss
of social welfare of up to 1,910 billion yuan.

Zhu Jianguo: “The sad thing is that the authorities
just view tight job market as an economic issue.
They dare not face the reason behind it.

So this will only miss the last opportunity for treatment,
causing the society to collapse."

Zhu Jianguo adds that currently, Chinese society is riddled
with extreme unfairness, hostility and resentment.
Mass conflicts have continued to emerge nationwide.
He warns that this is heading for disaster.

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