【禁聞】誰拿走中國「灰色收入」6.2萬億

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【新唐人2013年09月25日訊】最近大陸媒體刊登一篇名為「收入的真相」專題,內容指出,中國2011年的「灰色收入」達到6萬2千億元人民幣,大約佔了國內生產毛額(GDP)的12%。但作者進一步分析發現,「灰色收入」有向某些中、高收入階層蔓延的趨勢,說明腐敗對中國社會的影響面在擴大。

「中國改革研究基金會國民經濟研究所」研究員王小魯的調查報告「收入的真相」,近期在大陸媒體發表。

基於2012年的調查數據,作者完成了新的研究報告,研究結果顯示,估計2011年城鎮10%最高收入家庭的「實際人均收入約為18.8萬元」,是統計收入的3.2倍。

而城鎮最高收入與城鎮最低收入各10%家庭之間,收入比是20.9倍,遠高於官方統計顯示的8.6倍。「絕對收入」的差距和「灰色收入」總量仍在繼續擴大。2011年,城鎮居民收入基尼係數為0.501。

初步推算,2011年居民「灰色收入」為6萬2千億元,約佔GDP的12%,主要集中在一部分高收入居民。但分析發現,「灰色收入」有向某些中高收入階層蔓延的趨勢,說明腐敗對社會的影響面在擴大,社會面臨嚴重挑戰。

美國南加州大學公共政策博士葉科:「現在在中國這個社會,是一個兩極分化非常嚴重,機會極不公平的社會,資源配置是取決於與權力的距離,而且這種權力是高度壟斷的,腐敗嚴重,所以越有權力的人,離核心權力越近的人,資源就會越來越多。然後越有條件攫取下一次機會,所以造成這樣的惡性循環,就是窮者越窮,富者越富。」

調查認為,改善收入分配,絕不是僅僅依靠「調整工資」和「個人所得稅起徵點」能夠解決的。而造成收入差距過大和分配不公,是因為一系列體制問題沒有得到根本解決,收入分配混亂的局面沒有得到控制,收入分配的絕對差距還在繼續擴大。

作者推算,城鎮居民收入基尼係數已經進入了一個危險的區間,已對中國的社會公正、穩定和經濟發展產生十分嚴重的挑戰。

美國南加州大學公共政策博士葉科:「因為窮人他根本就沒有機會,他根本就沒法過日子,所以經濟上內需他根本不可能解決的了,人沒有這樣的公平感,非常強烈的仇富心理,各種社會矛盾會激化,而且窮人連教育機會,很多的發展機會都會被剝奪,所以整體社會以後一定會被分裂,這個社會它不可能健康的發展。」

據了解,中國的灰色收入有三大特點,第一是謀取對像「公款化」,主要渠道是各種直接或變相的「化公為私」,第二是謀取方式「集團化」,簡單的說,就是單位巧立名目濫發獎金、補貼,人人有份。第三是存在氛圍的「正當化」,一些公務人員以各種理由和藉口,使自己心安理得的接受「灰色收入」。

分析認為,灰色收入的膨脹與中共當局大規模投資有關。因為在公權力沒有受到約束的情況下,執政當局介入資源配置,是導致公共資金流失、腐敗氾濫的重要條件。

美國資深經濟分析師簡天倫:「尤其是對資源壟斷的行業,這些灰色收入特別多,就像石油、電力、電訊、天然氣等等,國企的上市,本來資產都是國有的,就是全民所有,就是全中國人的,按道理來說,可是他一改制,國企上市了以後,圈錢圈了很多錢,圈的這個資金怎麼分配?他錢多了,就變成又有總經理、又有CEO的,這個錢他們自己說了算。」

中共央企高管高薪不受制約、缺乏透明,最引人討論的莫過於「新華人壽」原總裁孫兵。根據審計報告,孫兵2009年的年薪已達 750萬元。

最近爆發的廣州市國營企業「白雲農工商聯合公司」經理張新華,賤賣國有土地、物業,收取巨額賄賂,涉案金額超過3億元。

採訪/陳漢 編輯/黃億美 後製/郭敬

What Happens to China’s 6.2 Trillion in Gray Income?

Recently, a Mainland media outlet published an article
entitled The Truth About Gray Income, which indicated
that gray income in 2011 was as high as 6200 billion yuan,
equivalent to 12% of the GDP.
The author discovered that the gray income has a tendency
to further spread among medium and high income groups.
This explains that the impact of corruption is widening
in Chinese society.

Wang Xiaolu, China Reform Foundation researcher, published
his investigation report entitled The Truth About Gray Income.

Based on the 2012 survey, Wang completed his new report.
The results showed that 10% of the highest income, urban
household per capita, was about 188,000 yuan, which was
3.2 times income statistics.

The earning ratio between 10% of the highest and lowest
incomes was 20.9 times, and far exceeded the official statistics of 8.6 times.
The gap between absolute income and gray income
continues to increase.
Urban residents’ income Gini Coefficient was 0.501
in 2011, with 0 being fair and 1 being the most unfair.

According to preliminary projections, residents’ gray income
in 2011 was 6.2 trillion, accounting for 12% of GDP.
The gray income mostly occurred in some high-income
residents.
After analysis, Wang discovered that gray income
has a tendency to further spread, indicating the impact
of corruption is increasing in society, which poses
serious challenges.

Dr.Ye Ke, public policy, University of Southern California:
“Chinese society is quite polarized and extremely unfair.
Allocation of resources is determined by power, monopoly
and serious corruption.
The closer to the core of power, the more resources one can
get and more likely to obtain the next opportunity.
This turns into a vicious cycle; the poor become poorer,
and the rich richer.”

Improvement of income distribution cannot be resolved by
wage adjustments and personal income tax threshold.
Too large an income gap and unfair allocation come from
a system that has not resolved its fundamental issues.
Income distribution chaos is not under control,
and thus, the income gap continues to expand.

According to Wang’s projections, residents’ income
Gini Coefficient has entered a dangerous zone, which
creates serious challenges for China’s social justice,
stability and economic development.

Ye Ke: “When the poor have no chance, they cannot survive
and their economic needs are not met.
When injustice intensifies, so will social conflicts.

If the poor have no opportunity to get an education and their
basic living cannot be guaranteed, society cannot develop.”

It is understood that China’s gray income
has three unique traits.
The first is that public funding, directly or indirectly,
is turned into private spending.
The second is that funding is turned into bonuses
or subsidies, so everyone benefits.
The third is that various excuses are made to turn gray income
into justifiable income, so one can gain peace of mind.

Analysts believe that gray income expansion is linked
to massive investments from the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
Power without constraint leads to loss of public resources
and widespread corruption.

Jian Tianlun, US senior economic analyst: “Such gray income
commonly comes from monopolized resources, such as
the oil sector, electricity, telecommunication,
and natural gas, etc.
These are state-owned enterprises and their assets belong
to all people in China.
Now they make so much money, but how should they
distribute it?
Thus, they set up presidents and CEO’s, who make decisions
on what to do with profits.”

The CCP’s corporate executives have no wage limits
and lack transparency.
Sun Bin, the president of New China Life Insurance,
was most talked about.
His annual salary reached 7.5 million yuan in 2009.
Zhang Xinhua, the president of Baiyun Agricultural
and Commercial Corporation, sold state-owned land cheaply
and received huge bribes of more than 300 million yuan.

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