【禁闻】中国4万病险水库 难治又难拆

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【新唐人2011年8月25日讯】中国是世界上水库最多的国家,但目前,中国的水库有一半以上处于“病险状态”。许多地区的“病险水库”如同头顶“一盆水”,当地多存在灭顶之患。中共政府上周末开会表示,要增加水利投资,消除全部现有病险水库的安全隐患,但是专家指出,这些水库已经成为棘手的化学炸弹,问题将长期存在。

据《中国经济周刊》报导,在上世纪50~70年代,中共完成了水利工程建设的“大跃进”,成为世界上水库数量最多的国家。现有的8万7千座水库,大部分建于那个时期。到目前为止,这些水库都已是超期服役。由于当初技术水准有限,而且几十年的运行中,又缺少必需的维护,中国水库病险的数量过半,达4万多座。

报导说,这4万多“病险水库”绝大部分散布在农村和一些县市的上游。有统计显示,中国头顶“一盆水”的城市有179座,占全国城市的25.4%;头顶“一盆水”的县城有285座,占全国县城的16.7%。“病险水库”一旦溃坝,可能给下游城镇,造成灭顶之灾。

水利专家王维洛博士表示,由于大陆社会机制腐败,治理工程缺乏资金监管和质量监督,所以当局的治理完全没有达到效果。

王维洛(水利专家):“35年前那时候,它调查了一次,说有25%的水库是不安全的。中央政府就开始投资,投很多钱,说非要把这个病危水库给治理好。治理了这么多年,它现在的病危水库达到将近50%了。就是说,中央投资越多,这个病危水库的座数不是越来越少,而是越来越多了。”

《中国经济周刊》报导说,这次国家水利部的内部事务,第一次上升为中央层面最高规格的治水会议。中共立志在未来的5年,要消除全部现有病险水库的安全隐患。

王维洛:“在十年里面,它又要投四万亿人民币,来搞水利建设。在三年之内把中国的江河湖海的这些问题都要解决了。口气吹的很大,其实,它这种东西无非就是一种宣传作用,但是从里面可以看到中国的这个问题很大。”

王维洛博士介绍,在国外,水库达到寿命后就拆除,将河流恢复原状,不能遗留下任何危害,但中国的水库却不行。

王维洛:“中国的水库为什么不行?因为中国的水土流失问题太重。水库里面装满了都是泥沙,你把这个大坝一拆,这些泥沙一下子全部都冲到你河道里去,接着就是洪水啊。这个东西它拆不掉了,老得花钱给它保护在那里,花很多钱,它基本上是没有什么功能。中国在那里做这些工程的时候,它老不想这些事情。”

“四川大学”环境科学与工程教授艾南山表示,这些病险水库是棘手的“化学炸弹”。

艾南山(四川大学教授):“填满水库库容的这些淤泥,它并不是普通的泥沙,它是带有污染的泥沙。即使你想报废,把它炸掉的话,这些泥沙会随着水冲下来,这也是很灾害呀,它有污染哪,所以叫做‘化学炸弹’。”

病险水库难以拆除,既不能再产生效益,又要耗费大量维修和养护费用,资金从哪里来?

据了解,很多地方没有将水库费用纳入地方财政支出,即使在几年内集中了国家的力量,对全部的病险水库进行了除险加固,但如果后续的管护长期不到位,在整治过后的三五年甚或更短的时间内,中国或许又将面临新一轮的“病险水库问题”。

新唐人记者梁欣、尚燕、王明宇采访报导。

China’s 40,000 Dangerous Reservoirs

China has the most reservoirs in the world.
But now, over half of their reservoirs
are in “dangerous" condition.

Many dilapidated reservoirs are like
pots of water on people’s heads,
becoming the risk of annihilation for the local areas.

During last weekend’s meetings, the Chinese Communist
government (CCP) said that it would increase investments in
water conservation to eliminate all safety issues.

But experts point out that these reservoirs have become
troublesome time bombs, and the problem will persist.

China Economic Weekly reported that in the last 50-70 years,

The CCP finished the construction of the world’s largest
number of reservoirs as part of the “Great Leap Forward."
Most of the existing 87,000 reservoirs were built at that time.

The level of technology was quite limited then,
and there was a lack of required maintenance.
That, combined with decades of operation put
up to 40,000 (over half of) reservoirs in a dangerous state.
The report said that the majority of these 40,000 reservoirs
are scattered in upper reaches of rural areas
and in some cities and counties.

Statistics show that it covers 179 cities and 285 counties
with a ratio of 25.4% of all cities and 16.7% of all counties.
Once the dams of these dangerous reservoirs collapse,
It will cause the annihilation of downstream cities and towns.
Hydraulic expert Wang Weiluo said that
because of the authorities’ systematical corruption,
there was lack of engineering quality control
and financial supervision,
the authorities’ actions haven’t achieved any desired effect.

Wang Weiluo (Hydraulic expert): 35 years ago,
they made an investigation and concluded that
25% of reservoirs were defective.
The CCP began to invest a lot of money into the reservoirs.
However, after decades, the proportion of
faulty reservoirs became nearly 50%.
That is, the more investment made by the authorities,
the more reservoirs end up in critical conditions.
China Economic Weekly reported that it was the first time

the Ministry of Water Resources’ internal affairs were
upgraded to the highest central-level meeting of flood control.
The report said that CCP is determined to eliminate all
existing reservoir safety issues in the next five years.
Wang: In a decade, the authorities will cast
another RMB four trillion into water conservation.
Within three years, it wants to solve all the problems of
China’s rivers and lakes. What a big talk!
This is nothing but propaganda.
We can see this problem has become serious.
Wang Weiluo explained that in western countries,
the reservoirs are removed after its life expectancy, and
the rivers are returned to their original state.
but for China’s reservoirs, this is not the case.
Wang Weiluo (Hydraulic expert): Why is there no way?

Because China’s soil erosion problems are so serious that
all the reservoirs are filled with sand.
So when removing the dam, sediment will be
washed into the rivers and that will cause flooding.
Therefore, they cannot afford to remove reservoirs.

Instead, you have to keep spending to keep them there,
pouring a lot of money but without much functionality.
When planning these projects, the authorities never
considered these problems.
Ai Nanshan, professor of Professor of Environmental
Science & Engineering of Sichuan University, said that
these dangerous reservoirs are tough “chemical bombs."

Ai Nanshan (professor of Sichuan University):

The sludge that is filled in the reservoir is not ordinary silt;
it is contaminated.
Even if you want to scrap and demolish the reservoirs,
the sediment will be flushed down along with its pollution.
So, it can be called “chemical bombs."

These dangerous reservoirs are difficult to be dismantled.
They no longer produce any benefits but cost so much to
repair and maintain. Where does money come from?

In China, in many places, local fiscal expenditures
do not cover the related reservoirs costs.
Therefore, even if all the dangerous reservoirs are reinforced,
they are left without adequate management and protection.
In three to five years or even less, China might face
another round of “dangerous reservoir" problems.

NTD reporters Liang Xin, Shang Yan and Wang Mingyu.

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