【禁闻】专家:温州金改应向自由社会学习

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【新唐人2012年3月30日讯】28号,中共国务院常务会议决定,设立“温州市金融综合改革试验区”,将扩大银行对企业家的借贷,并允许温州人到海外投资。试图让地下金融“地上化”。不过,外界认为,大部分贷款还是会由国有企业得到,因为国企和银行关系密切,同时也是官员权力的基础。

温州是一个以出口导向的私营企业中心,由于很难从国有银行获得贷款,致使私人借贷发展得非常普及。2008年的金融风暴,引发温州民间融资和借贷破产浪潮,这次温州金融改革的目地,据说是要把借贷双方纳入一个当局能监控的结构化系统中。

在大陆经商,中小私人企业是无法获得国有银行的贷款,所以温州地下金融的存在,有市场需要的理由。美国《福克斯》新闻引述美林证券经济学家卢婷的话说,将贷款借给小微企业的最有效措施,就是允许成立更多的私营资本的小银行。不过,前提是中国要先建立一套存款保险体系。

温州中小企业出现资金链断裂和企业主出走现象,曾经吸引了全球的关注,中共国务院为了监测民间的融资,在温州设立金融综合改革试验区,并且要开放个人境外直接投资试点,让私人投资海外的金融资产。

针对这个问题,经济发展专家吴惠林表示,中国经济发展成本已经向上升高,很多企业都难以生存,所以这个金融改革试验能不能成功,他并不看好。

吴惠林:“中小企业当然是相对的弱势,那现在只有在资金方面可以给他们做一些贷款,这个不是市场上那种做法,而是由政府有意的对特定对像然后来做一些贷款,所以是不是会最后变成一个样板式的情况,他们在市场上没有办法贷到款,可能当初就是受到一些不公平待遇,或者是说制度本身他就不是那么自由开放,所以应该是从制度的因素去改革。”

吴惠林认为,让金融制度自由化、专业化,按市场法则来做,政府不需要跳到第一线来主导控制市场,而是在后面扮演好支援的角色。整个体制的改革还是要往市场化来发展,才能让地下金融“地上化”。

吴惠林:“你怎样让这个地下金融变成地上金融,你把这整个金融开放了以后,很自然的这地下金融它就能有所管道,然后怎么能变成地上金融,因为你管制越多,地下的不管是金融或者地下经济越蓬勃,那你现在管制把它开放了,越来越自由化以后,那些自然或是地下金融就被淘汰了,或是它已经脱胎换骨变成地上的。”

吴惠林表示,中国在经济这方面还是半调子,中国需要好好学习自由社会的经济发展模式。

吴惠林:“总而言之,应该是要整个体制这种改革,而不是保持原来这种体制,然后政府作一些管控,那种方式应该是要退位了,好好去学习自由社会里面用的那种比较好的方式。”

温州金融综合改革还将开放个人境外直接投资试点,不过,分析人士说,在中国经济放缓的时候,北京对资本过度外流也会感到担忧。卢婷还向《福克斯》新闻表示,反正中国没有有效的措施控制温州跨边境资本外流,为什么不将它合法化呢?

采访/陈汉 编辑/李庭 后制/孙宁

Wenzhou Pushes Underground Financing Aboveground

On March 28, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) decided
to set up the Wenzhou financial comprehensive reform.
Bank lending is expanded to entrepreneurs in Wenzhou
and people will be allowed to make direct foreign investment.
This “pilot zone” program is attempting to bring
underground financing above ground.
However, according to outside analyses, the majority of
bank loans will still be given to the state-owned enterprises.
This is because the SOEs have close ties with the banks,
meanwhile, they provide the basis of power for the officials.

Due to difficulty to obtain loans from state-owned banks,
private lending is very popular in Wenzhou.
The 2008 financial crisis triggered bankruptcy waves
in the area of private financing and lending.
The recent Wenzhou financial reform reportedly aims to put
creditors and debtors into an officially-controlled framework.

In mainland China, small and medium-sized private
enterprises are unable to get loans from state-owned banks.
This explains the reason why underground financing
markets exist in Wenzhou.
Fox News quoted Merrill Lynch economist Lu Ting.

“A more effective measure to direct loans to smaller
companies would be to allow the establishment of more small banks with private capital,” Lu said.
“But authorities are unlikely to take such a step
until China has set up a deposit insurance system,” adds Lu.

Wenzhou was once a global focus for local medium and small enterprises suffering
from the money-off chain and bosses’ choosing to flee.
In order to monitor private sector financing, CCP’s State
Council set up a financial reform pilot zone in Wenzhou.
A pilot program will reportedly allow
individuals to make direct investments overseas.

Expert in economics Wu Hui-lin comments that China’s
economic development has seen the surging cost.
A slew of enterprises face hardship in trying to survive.
Wu is not optimistic about this financial reform’ pilot project.

Wu Hui-lin: “Certainly the medium and small enterprises
are relatively weaker in their finance situations.
Now they are allowed to get loans but in a way different
from the common practice done in the market.
The government will make loans available to them
as a specific group.
Inability to get loans from the market may be caused
by the unfair treatment they received in the past.
Or you can blame the system for not being free and open.
The reform should be embarked on the institutional factors.”

Wu Hui-lin says it should follow the market rule to liberalize
and specialize the financial system.
Wu says, the government shouldn’t be a frontline dominator
controlling the market, it should be a background supporter.
Wu adds that the reform of the entire system
needs to be market-oriented.
Only in this way can underground financing
become “aboveground" one.

Wu Hui-lin: “How do you make current underground
financing aboveground?
After you open up the entire financial system,
the underground financial business will find its way to fit,
Next, how do you turn it into aboveground financing?

The more the control over underground financing
or underground economy, the more vigorous they are.
Now you free it up, underground financing will naturally
die out or be transformed into the aboveground sector."

China is still an amateur in the economic sector, and needs
to learn from the development model of free societies.

Wu Hui-lin: “In a word, it should carry out a reform
of the whole system.
It should not just preserve the original system
while adding some official control.
This pattern should be abandoned. They should learn from
the free society about the ways that have been succeeded.”

Wenzhou’s financial reform will reportedly launch
a pilot project allowing foreign investment for individuals.
Analysts say as China’s economy slows down, the CCP
will also be worried about the excessive capital outflow.
Fox News quotes Lu Ting: “There’s no effective control
of cross-border capital flows in Wenzhou anyway, so why not legalize it?"

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