采访/朱智善 编辑/王子琦 后制/孙宁
Why Do Private Companies in China Have Party Committees?
In mid September, two major suppliers of communication
equipment , Huawei and ZTE Corporation,
attended a hearing of the U.S. House of Representatives and
answered questions regarding the threat to U.S. national security.
This is the first time Chinese enterprises participated in such
hearings in the U.S. Congress.
In addition to being suspected of Internet spying, U.S.
lawmakers asked in the hearing why Huawei and ZTE should have party organizations.
Since February 2011, the U.S. Congress began to investigate
Huawei and ZTE. On September 13, the two sides finally met.
At the hearing, members of the U.S. Congress pinned harsh
questions on both companies in regards to their “espionage" activity.
Committee Chairman Mike Rogers pointed out that the
two companies sell espionage equipment.
There are vulnerabilities hidden in the back door of
It is a deliberate design which provides help for Chinese
intelligence agencies to attach network in the United States and become a serious threat to network security.
The hearing lasted three hours.
Huawei and ZTE executives also defended the allegations.
In addition to the network security issue, party organizations
in Huawei and ZTE had also become the focus of the questioning.
U.S. Lawmakers questioned why a private enterprise would
have a party organization.
how many members are in the party and whether
they participate in company decision-making.
Ding Shaohua, senior Vice President of Huawei and President
of North American companies, argued that
a party committee is established under the PRC company law,
and even Wal-Mart, a foreign-funded enterprise, has party organizations.
But he declared that party organization members do not
participate in enterprise management and decision-making.
Prof. Xie Tian, from the University of South Carolina’s
Aiken Business School,
once published an article entitled
“Foreign Companies Set Up Party Branches in the New Era”
which provided in-depth analysis of why the Chinese
authorities force foreign companies to set up party organizations.
Xie Tian pointed out that the establishment of party
organizations is in order to implement political control needs.
A party branch in a private enterprise precisely displays
the fact that guidance and management comes from senior party committee on the location.
Prof. Zhang Tianliang of George Mason University believes
that under the Chinese Communist Party(CCP), the party’s power is always higher than administrative power.
Those enterprises in Mainland China cannot survive without
Prof. Zhang Tianliang: “The entire CCP system penetrates
into each cell of society, including enterprises.
You may not know the functions of a party committee
and what it can do.
It is linked with the superior party committee,
the city’s party committee, and the district party committee, for it is an entire system."
Xie Tian’s article quoted the Secretary of the Party Committee
of Beijing Hyundai Motor, who said let foreign companies realize that
in order to business in China, you need to connect
with the political resources – party organizations.
This reveals the CCP’s secret and coincides
with Professor Zhang’s analysis.
Professor Zhang said that he had previously worked
in a Sino-German joint venture in Mainland.
Its party committee role was to supervise employees
and to report to their superiors.
Prof. Zhang: “Usually this party committee engages
in some activities.
After the persecution of Falun Gong began, the Party
committee would act according to the CCP’s requirement to discern which employees were practicing Falun Gong.
They would have a talk with him/her and fulfill the function
It is not a problem if you don’t see eye to eye
with the committee.
They will report it to their superiors and you will
be dealt with later.”
In actuality, Huawei and ZTE is experiencing long term pain in
the U.S. market when they plan the international territorial.
Why have these companies not broken into the U.S. market?
A Wall Street Journal article from June 13 may provide
the outside world with an answer.
It wrote, “Huawei, one of the world’s largest
telecommunications equipment manufacturer,
seems to have found what hampers its ambitions in the US,
precisely because of its official relations with the CCP.”