【禁聞】中美大學 距離到底有多遠

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【新唐人2012年10月26日訊】最近有美國媒體發表文章,對中國兩國的大學教育進行比較,並質問:「中國大學能打敗美國大學嗎?」本臺記者就此話題採訪了專家學者,對中美大學教育的最大不同點和未來發展趨勢進行分析,下面請看報導。

美國《華爾街日報》中文網的這篇文章談到,中國大陸具有競爭激烈的全國統考制度,通過高考對學生進行選拔。而競爭之激烈、準備過程之艱苦、舉國上下對考試結果之焦慮,無不讓美國的大學本科入學考試(SAT)看起來如同兒戲。

但目前來看,美國的大學體制仍是遠遠領先。領先的原因也很明顯:首先,美國用在教育上的花費最高,每年的教育開支達9,800億美元,是中國的兩倍。美國也是工程設計人才培養比例最高的國家,每一百萬名居民中有981個工程專業畢業生,而中國只有553個。此外,美國大學在給學生提供就業準備方面也做得最好。美國81%的工程專業畢業生可以立刻勝任工作,而只有10%的中國畢業生能做到這一點。

北京憲政學者 陳永苗:「它(中國)的學生所受的教育,就是一個書本上的、很書獃子氣的、基本上和社會上的東西是不能接軌的一種教育。在大學裡學完了,基本上就是學了一套很空泛的東西,沒有和實際結合的東西。」

北京憲政學者陳永苗談到,中國的教育現狀是由政治制度決定。相比之下,美國的大學教育則充滿自由氣息,大學教育和社會緊密聯繫,因此,學生畢業後就很容易融入社會工作之中。

《華爾街日報》的報導還提到,為了讓北京大學等院校進入全球精英院校之列,大陸當局向這些院校每家提供了2.7億美元的資金,給每位海外歸國人員的紅包高達15萬美元。報導分析說,加大資金投入和學生學習刻苦,使中國有可能在未來對美國的教育領先地位進行挑戰。

但陳永苗對此並不讚同,他表示,在目前體制之下,中國大學根本不可能超越美國大學。

陳永苗:「民國的自由造就了民國大學、像北大這樣的非凡,能夠為世界主流所承認。它並不是錢能夠積纍出來的。清華原來民國的校長(梅貽琦)說:大學是因為有大師,而不是因為有大樓。共產黨這樣子給錢,它只能塑造出大樓,沒辦法塑造出大師來。」

網友也評論指出:二十年前,國外就有文章,預測中國的學術要遠超美國,因為他驚訝於中國學生的刻苦。但至今還沒超過,而且差距越來越大。中國學生的刻苦是有目共睹的,但是刻苦不一定優秀,在錯誤的方向上再刻苦也是錯誤。

2009年,中國曾經倣傚美國的「常春籐」盟校模式,創建包括北京大學在內的九校聯盟,希望能吸引到最好的學生和教師。

對此,時政評論家伍凡認為,以前中國教育是向蘇聯學習,現在則完全倒向美國。但不管表面的課本或者教學形式和美國如何類似,中國教育因為受政治體制的影響,永遠學不到美國教育的精髓。

時政評論家伍凡 :「中國共產黨要控制這個教育,表面上要向美國學,但是它裡邊要成立一個黨委會,一切都由黨委會來決定,由共產黨來決定。各個學校、各個系,設有黨支部。所以這一點就跟美國的完全自由開放的教育是不同的。」

伍凡談到,共產黨控制大學教育的目地,是要把大學生培養成中共政權的接班人,為中共統治服務。但現在越來越多的大學生、中學生認識到在中國大學裡學不到真東西、還有黨八股和中共狼奶教育,所以,紛紛前往美國求學。

採訪/李韻 編輯/李謙 後製/王明宇

How Far Is China from American Education?

American media recently published an article to compare
Chinese and American education.
people questioning, “Will Chinese universities ever defeat
American universities?"
At our interview, scholars analyzed the differences
between Chinese and American education and their future developments.

This Wall Street Journal article mentioned that Mainland China
has a competitive national examination system to select students.
The intensity, competitiveness, and anxieties therein all
overshadow SAT, making the whole system look like children’s games.

America’s university system, however, is still far ahead.

The reasons are obvious: First, America has an annual budget
of $980 billion to spend on education, the highest among all the countries, and twice that of China.
America also has the highest proportion of engineer majors,
981 per million inhabitants, while that of China is only 553.
In addition, American universities do their best to provide
students with employment preparation.
81% of American engineering graduates can immediately
start work, while the number is just 10% in China.

Beijing constitutional scholar Chen Yongmiao:
“Chinese education is essentially bookish, isolated from social reality.
University education only provides students with a system
of empty things, difficult when applying them in the real world.”

Beijing constitutional scholar Chen Yongmiao said that
the status quo of China’s education is a result of China’s political system.
By contrast, American university education enjoys more freedom.

As education is closely related to society, students find it easy
to adapt to working life after graduation.

Wall Street Journal also mentions that Chinese authorities
grant Beijing University and some other universities $270 million each
to raise their education standard to an international level.

Some researchers returning from overseas can receive
up to $150,000.
The report says increased funding and competitive students
will eventually allow Chinese universities to challenge the leading position of American education.

Chen Yongmiao does not agree with this claim.

He says, under the current political system, it is impossible
for Chinese universities to catch up with American Universities.

Chen Yongmiao: “The freedom during the Republic of China
gave rise to widely recognized universities such as Beijing University.
This is not the influence made by money.

Former president of Tsinghua University Mei Yiqi once observed,

Universities are valued not because they have grand buildings,
but because they have intellectual masters.
With CCP’s investment, Chinese universities can only produce
buildings instead of masters.”

Some netizens also made comments: Twenty years ago,
overseas articles already foresaw how
China’s academics would exceed that of America,
because Chinese students studied extremely hard.
But China has not been able to make it,
falling even further behind.
Although well-know for their hard work, Chinese students
find it hard to stand out, since they are often following the wrong direction.

In 2009, China tried modeling itself after the U.S. Ivy
League schools,
trying to establish a union of nine schools,
including Beijing University.
They hoped such a union would attract
the best faculty and students.

Political critic Wu Fan comments, Chinese education used to
follow that of the Soviet Union, and now it is of the U.S.
However much the textbooks and teaching methods resemble
those of America,
Chinese education will never be able to learn the essence
of American education due to China’s political system.

Political critic Wu Fan: “CCP is still in control of
China’s education.
On the surface it claims to learn from the United States,
but in essence it establishes Party committees in the universities to control everything of the universities.
Party branches extend to all the departments and programs.
This is completely different from the free education in U.S.

Wu Fan says that CCP controls Chinese education so as to
turn students into successors of the Communist regime.
Now a growing number of college and high school students
realize that they can not really learn much knowledge in Chinese Universities,
and yet are constantly poisoned by CCP’s ideology. Therefore,
they flock to American soil to pursue further education.

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