【禁聞】中共反腐走向海外 難點代價何在

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【新唐人2014年11月10日訊】中共當局今年推出了「獵狐2014」行動,把反腐運動伸向海外。在日前北京召開的亞太經合組織首腦會議上(APEC),與會成員國討論了合作反腐問題,併發表了反腐宣言。那麼,中共有多大能力、又如何在海外展開行動?請看以下分析報導。

從今年七月以來,中共公安部就發動了「獵狐2014」行動,緝捕在逃境外的貪官。據官方數據,到十月底,已經抓獲了180多名攜款外逃的貪官,其中44人涉案金額在千萬人民幣以上。

日前在北京召開的APEC峰會上,中共也與APEC其他成員國討論了如何建立合作網路協作反腐問題,會上還通過了北京「反腐敗宣言」,希望能加大追蹤潛逃國外的腐敗官員力度。

不過,據《美國之音》披露,一個鮮為人知的事實是,中共為追回外逃貪官的贓款,有時需要和協助國家分享巨大的利益。

香港立法會議員黃毓民8號在香港《太陽報》刊文稱,此前有香港媒體披露,協助國家以美國為例,「重大協助」時,美國能分享的比例為五到八成,「較大協助」也能分享到四至五成。

美國南卡羅萊納大學艾肯商學院終身教授謝田表示,在沒有引渡條約的情況下,中共確實需要對花費人力、物力的國家付費,就像在西方國家追債公司的分成那樣。

美國南卡羅萊納大學艾肯商學院終身教授謝田:「跨國進行這種調查或者引渡罪犯回國的話,在另外一個國家有適當的費用的,但是中國實際上跟大部分國家都沒有引渡的條約。」

《太陽報》指出,這種海外獵狐反貪,中共不僅代價巨大,而且還違反《聯合國反腐敗公約》的「被貪污的公款必須返還」原則。

根據2011年央行披露的資料顯示,外逃貪官攜款超過了8000億人民幣。

不過實際上,中共貪官向海外轉移的資產,遠不止被披露出來的8000億。

在2012年,英國《路透社》就根據「全球金融誠信」(Global Financial Integrity)的報告指出,過去十年流出中國的非法資金高達3.8萬億美元,摺合人民幣20多萬億。今年初,「國際調查記者同盟」發佈的大陸和香港離岸投資調查報告也揭示,自2000年以來,有1萬億到4萬億美元的資產從大陸流出。

謝田表示,中共的大部分高官在海外都有私人資產,他們的子女、配偶也有不少到美國等西方國家定居,這些都限制了中共只能是選擇性反腐,而不能真正實施全面反腐。

謝田:「問題的根本就在於反腐並不是中國的一個國家的政策,它更沒有一個正常的這樣一個國策,實際上中國腐敗的根源就是中共本身自己。所以,中共反腐不是一個合理的、合法的、堂堂正正的一個舉動,而是中共內鬥的一個工具,使他們不敢把它拿到檯面上來。」

謝田指出,如果中共真正反腐,實際上就是反他們自己,中共就要倒臺。這是他們所不能忍受的,也是中共不能與其他民主國家共用資訊、達成真正反腐協議的原因。

事實上,中共貪官首選為避風港的美國、加拿大和澳大利亞,不僅與中共沒有引渡協議,而且這些國家的司法制度也是中共海外「獵狐」的障礙。

例如,前遠華集團創始人賴昌星在2011年被從加拿大引渡回中國,但在此之前經歷了12年的漫長引渡訴訟過程,中共還作出不判他死刑的承諾﹔中共2004年把在美國的原中行廣東開平支行行長余振東引渡回國,雖然他被指控非法侵佔4.85億美元的銀行資產,但美國遣送條件就是余振東不得遭受虐待或被判處死刑。

此外,政治因素有時也會是中共海外反腐的障礙。

中共前外交人員、現華盛頓智庫大西洋理事會資深研究員楊恆均對《美國之音》指出,那些潛逃官員幾乎都會攜帶一些機密文件,或者向西方國家洩露中共的「國家機密」。如果受到追捕,他們就聲稱自己是「政治迫害」的對像,讓西方國家政府左右為難。

這樣看來,逃到海外的「狐狸」比「老虎」和「蒼蠅」難打得多,中共的「海外獵狐」絕不輕鬆。

採訪/陳漢 編輯/宋風 後製/周天

The Challenges in Expanding Anti-Corruption Overseas

This year, the CCP started the“Hunting Foxes 2014” campaign
and expanded the anti-corruption movement overseas.
At the APEC summit in Beijing, world leaders discussed how
to calibrate on international anti-corruption and
published a declaration on anti-corruption as well.

What price has the CCP to pay and what challenges has it to face
when expanding anti-corruption overseas?
Please read the report below.

At the Summit , the CCP representatives also discussed how
to carry out anti-corruption via international collaboration.
A joint “Declaration on Anti-Corruption” was agreed so that
corrupt officials who fled abroad can be chased more effectively.

However, as disclosed by VoA (Voice of America),
in order to trace back the huge amount of money
that corrupt Chinese officials took overseas, sometimes
the party has to agree to share the pie with the country
that assists in the process.

Wong Yuk-man, Member of Hong Kong Legislative Council,
published an article in Hong Kong “The Sun Daily News” Nov 8.
In it he mentions, sometimes the country, like the U.S.,
that greatly assists in tracing corrupt officials can receive
50 to 80% of the profit. Even the country that offers
“relatively great assistance” can receive 40 to 50%.

Xie Tian, University of South Carolina, Aiken Business School,
said that the party needs to reimburse other countries
for the cost in manpower and physical resources
when there is no extradition treaty between them.
It’s like how one has to pay collection companies in the West.

Xie Tian:“The third country is normally paid a reasonable
amount for international investigation and extradition.
However, China hasn’t set up extradition treaties
with most of the countries.”

“The Sun Daily News” pointed out that not only is the party
paying a huge price to trace corrupt officials abroad
but it’s against the principle of
“embezzled public funds needs to be fully refunded”
from “UN Convention against Corruption”.

As disclosed by China Central Bank in 2011,
more than 800 billion Chinese yuan flew out of China when corrupt officials fled overseas.

In actuality, the amount of assets the party’s corrupt officials
took with them are worth far more than 800 billion.

In 2012, based on the reports of “Global Financial Integrity”,
Reuter reported that in the past 10 years as much as
3,800 billion U.S. dollars, or 20,000 billion Chinese yuan,
illegally flew out of China.

Xie Tian said most of the party officials own overseas property.
Their children and spouses live in the U.S. or other western countries.
Therefore, the party can only selectively perform anti-corruption
and it’s impossible to be thorough.

Xie Tian: “The root problem is that anti-corruption is not part
of the national policies. Actually, the party itself is the root cause
of the corruption. Therefore, the party’s anti-corruption
is not reasonable, legal or upright.
It’s nothing but a tool used in faction struggles.
It’s not something they dare to put on the table.”

Xie Tie also points out that, if the party is really fighting against
corruption, it is actually fighting against itself.
The party itself will collapse because of this.
This is not something that they can bear.
That’s also the reason why the party is not willing to share
common resources with democratic countries and achieve international agreements on anti-corruption.

The corrupt officials prefer the U.S., Canada and Australia
as their safe harbors because not only don’t these countries
have extradition treaties with China, but the legislative systems
in these countries are obstacles for the party to track them down.

For example, Lai Changxing, former founder of Yuanhua Group,
was extradited from Canada in 2011.
But, the extradition proceedings lasted 12 years.
The party also had to promise not to sentence Lai to death.
In 2002, the party extradited Yu Zhendong,
former M D. of Kaiping Branch of Bank of China, Guangdong.
Though Yu was charged with illegal embezzlement of
0.485 billion U.S. dollars, the U.S. government only agreed the extradition if he wouldn’t be tortured or sentenced to death.

In addition, political factors are also obstacles for the party
to carry out anti-corruption overseas.

Yang Hengjun, former party diplomat and current member of
Washington Atlantic Council, explained to Voice of America
that most officials that fled overseas carry with them
confidential documents. They might disclose party “secrets”
to western countries. If they were hunted down,
they would declare they are “politically persecuted”,
which puts western governments in a dilemma.

In this way, those “foxes” that fled overseas are even harder
to catch, compared to the “tigers” and “flies”.
It’s not an easy job for the party to track “overseas foxes” down.

Interview/ChenHan Edit/SongFeng Post-Production/ZhouTian

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