【禁闻】中国农村老人自杀现象触目惊心

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【新唐人2014年10月07日讯】前不久,一份《农村老年人自杀的社会学研究》发现,中国大陆农村老年人自杀现象,“已经严重到触目惊心的地步”。报告显示,很多老人自杀,除了生存艰难、疾病缠身以外,还因为缺乏亲情。分析认为,这是中共专制下农村户籍制度所衍生的恶果

9月23号,中国首部老龄产业蓝皮书——“中国老龄产业发展报告(2014)”发布。这份由中国老龄科学研究中心编写的报告指出,大陆已经处于高龄社会初期,到2050年,中国老人将达到4.8亿,占世界老年人口的1/4。

另外,中国《半月谈》杂志新近发表的《农村老年人自杀的社会学研究》也表示,研究发现,农村老人自杀现象“已经严重到触目惊心的地步”。

例如,在老龄化程度高达28%的江苏省如东县,六七十岁的老人,绝大多数还在打零工、做家务,他们渴望儿孙在身边,可现实中各种因素,不少老人却住进了养老院。他们在那里只是“活着”,没有亲情、没有友情,甚至没有任何感情交流。

武汉人权活动家秦永敏表示,不仅是农村老人自杀现象严重,整个农村比较贫困落后地方,都存在深层的问题,基本都很难得到妥善的解决。

武汉人权活动家秦永敏:“很多年来常常都有七八十岁的老人,还在为了生存从事各种繁重的体力劳动,或者是流浪到城里去进行像捡破烂,卖菜啊,甚至乞讨这样来维持生活。几十年来,这个国家对农村、农业、农民的政策都非常残酷,所有政策的制定,总是从政府利益最大化,官员利益最大化的角度考虑。”

最初中共实行的农村户口制,把农村人死死的定在农田里,每个人都必须终身在农村劳作。秦永敏说,改革开放以后,最初土地不值钱时,当局就大量忽视农村土地问题。

秦永敏:“现在土地升值了,那么就又回(过)头来,千方百计把农民的土地收去,官方用它来维持财政。与此同时,农民家庭结构现在也发生了很大的变化,一般来说,现在年轻人,中壮年人基本上都不可能再用从事农业活动来维持生计,所以就大量的逃往城市。”

原《陕西电视台》记者马晓明说,农民赖以生存的土地被强征强占之后,许多农民的生活出现了问题,所以青壮年人都到城市打工去了,只剩下老弱病残的还留在农村。

原《陕西电视台》记者马晓明:“现在子女、亲近的人都出去打工了,农忙的时候有时才能回来一下,有时候只有过年过节才能回来,甚至过几个年节才能回来一次。农村的老年人应该受到的生活照顾和社会的医疗等等,这种关照太少,所以就会出现老人自杀严重。”

《农村老年人自杀的社会学研究》项目,由武汉大学社会学系讲师刘燕舞主持。刘燕舞6年来,通过对大陆11个省份、40多个村庄的农村老人自杀现象进行调研后发现,从1990年开始,中国农村老年人自杀率大幅上升,并保持在高位。

2008年,刘燕舞的研究团队在湖北省京山县调研,老人自杀在当地被视作正常、合理的事。在各村去世的老人中,自杀率高达30%以上。

秦永敏:“现在这里头既涉及家庭问题,也涉及社会问题,从社会层面来说,长久以来,国家政策对农村、农民、农业几乎都一直是只取不予,现在再加上家庭空巢化,只是老人在家里,他们作为一个没有未来的群体,现状就那样艰难,因此选择自杀。”

秦永敏表示,在中共现行体制下,要想解决农村老人自杀问题非常困难,即使解决了养老和医疗问题,也无法解决年轻人辛苦劳作却难以达到温饱,而不得不出外打工的问题。

采访编辑/李韵 后制/李智远

Alarming Elderly Suicides in Rural China

A recent sociological study on elderly suicides in China found
rates are too phenomenal to ignore.
The report showed causes are mainly due to tough life, sickness,
and lack of family care.
Analysts believe this is a bitter consequence of the rural
household registration system under the Communist regime.

The first bluebook on causes of ageing:
‘China Report on the Development of Ageing 2014’ was
released on Sept. 23.

This report was conducted by China Research Center on Ageing.

It suggested that by 2050, there will be 480 million elderly
Chinese, accounting for a quarter of the world’s elderly population.

Also, a sociological study on suicides among older people
in rural China also found that suicide rates
have reached an alarming level.

For example, up to 28% of the population in Rudong County,
Jiangsu Province, are elderly.
The majority of those who are in their 60s or 70s are still
doing odd jobs and house chores.
They long for the company of their children and grandchildren.
But many of them are admitted to nursing homes where they
are kept alive, but with no family, friends or any emotional exchange.

Wuhan human rights activist Qin Yongmin indicates that
in the rural areas, it is not just the serious elderly suicide issue
but also many deeper problems hard to resolve.

Qin Yongmin: “For many years, these people of 70 to 80 are
still carrying out a variety of hard physical jobs just to survive.
Some of them even wander into town to be waste pickers
or produce sellers. Some even become beggars to survive.
For several decades, this country has had a very harsh policy
towards the rural areas, agriculture and peasants.
The policy was pro-government benefit and pro-official benefit."

The Communist rural registration system had initially tightly
bound rural people to the farms.
They had to stay as peasant laborers in the countryside.

Qin Yongmin says that after the reform and opening up,
the land was initially worthless, so the regime had ignored
a large number of rural land issues.

Qin Yongmin: “Now the land appreciates, they come back
to take the land away from the farmers.
The authorities use the land to maintain the local finances.
Meanwhile, the family structure has undergone great changes
in the rural areas.

In general, the younger generations no longer rely on
agricultural activities for their livelihoods and many of them
fled to the city."

Former Shaanxi TV reporter Ma Xiaoming explains that after
the land was usurped, many farmers encountered problems
of survival. The young people have to work in cities,
leaving only the old and sick ones in the countryside.

Ma Xiaoming: “The young ones are gone and only return home
during harvest time, or the New Year and or even only
once every several years.

The elderly could not get proper care and medical attention.
That’s why the suicide rates are getting serious."

The sociological study of rural elderly suicide was
conducted by Liu Yanwu, lecturer at the Department of Sociology,
Wuhan University.

For 6 years, the survey investigated elderly suicides
in 11 provinces and more than 40 villages.
It found that since 1990, China’s rural elderly suicide rate has
increased significantly, and remained high.

In 2008, Liu Yanwu’s research team found elderly suicides
in Jingshan County, Hubei Province, were regarded as
reasonably normal in the locality. Among the elderly deaths,
the suicide rate was as high as 30%.

Qin Yongmin: “It involves problems of both the family
and wider social issues.
From the social perspective, the national policy for rural areas,
farmers and agriculture has always been to get but not to give.
The empty nest syndrome has kept the elderly alone.

As a group with no future and a very difficult status quo,
they choose to commit suicide."

Qin Yongmin indicates that under the current Communist regime,
it is very difficult to solve the problem of suicide among
the elderly in rural areas.

Even if the pension and medical problems are resolved,
it can not solve the hardships young people are experiencing
even if they work hard locally.
They still have to go out to work as migrants.

Interview & Edit/LiYun Post-Production/Li Zhiyuan

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