【禁闻】依法治国 首要解决的是谁?

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【新唐人2014年10月22日讯】中共正在进行的四中全会,首度把“依法治国”作为主题来讨论,但是外界似乎并没有感到太多欣喜。不少声音质疑,中共现任总书记习近平提出的“任何组织和个人,都没有超越宪法和法律的特权”,其中是否包括共产党本身?外界认为,共产党执政合法性问题,是首要解决的问题。

目前“依法治国”这一话题受到各方高度关注,各大媒体都在探讨,在中共独裁统治下的中国,是否能真正进行依法治国。

《法国广播电台》针对中共在四中全会开幕前夕一系列的违法行为,提出了“依法治国还是党比法大”的质疑。例如数十人因为表态支持香港占中被抓,公盟创始人郭玉山被捕,关心维汉团结的知识份子伊力哈木被判无期徒刑等。

有学者认为,中共在宣誓依法或依宪治国的同时,会为自己的党超越宪法的特权,预留空间。“依法治国”的前景不容乐观。

《亚洲新闻周刊》总监黄金秋:“要正儿八经依法治国,那就应该按照宪法的精神,所有党派都要在宪法的框架内进行活动,包括共产党都要到民政部进行社团注册,每年都要年检,缴纳注册费,党产和国产要分开,你不能用国库来发工资。”

实际上,中共的执政合法性近年来越来越受到各界质疑。贺卫方、陈有西、何兵等北京法律专家,在中国政法大学讲课时说,共产党作为一个组织,并没有在民政部门登记注册,是个不合法的组织。

著名历史学者辛灏年也曾撰文指出,以军事暴力建立,把既成事实施加于被统治者,并且从来不给被统治者表达认同或反对的机会,这样的政府在程式上是不合法的。

而在中共四中全会开始前,中国“法治三老”之一、86岁的郭道晖就对国内媒体说,真正的法治是法的统治,任何人,包括执政党,都要受到法的支配。

他说,一个部门、地方制定的法规、党委的“红头文件”等,甚至只是保护某个特殊利益集团利益的所谓“法”,都说是依法办事。这样的法治,只是形式法治,甚至是恶法之治。

对于“依法治国”,郭道晖认为最重要的正是公民的基本权利,但是在中国,连人权的保护都还没有法律。

虽然中国宪法规定,“公民有言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威的自由。”“有批评、建议、控诉或者申诉政府的权利。”但是这些权利大都还没有立法,公民和社会组织的权利受到侵犯,得不到司法救济,只能依靠上访。

曾盘踞中共政法委10年的周永康,当时曾提倡“政治是大道,司法是小技,雕虫小技必须服从于政治”的谬论,也使公民的权利从根本上受到轻视和打压。

如今,周永康已经失势,当局也高调提出要“依法治国”的口号。一党统治下的中国,是否可能出现法比党大的局面呢?

北京宪政学者陈永苗在接受《新唐人》采访时说,在有中共存在的情况下,这是天方夜谭。

北京宪政学者陈永苗:“苏联在它的中后期也提出了依法治国,它也不可避免地走向瓦解,坚持党的领导跟依法治国本身是冲突的。”

黄金秋:“法治国家必须要有民主来配合,如果没有民主相配合就是一个独裁国家,一个希特勒国家。大家有事情通过司法途径来解决,才能实现习近平所说的中国梦。”

事实上,在当今中共统治下的中国,关心国家前途的异见人士,报导事实真相的记者,维护公民权利的律师,举报贪官的公民,以及因为信仰而遭到关押的民众,比比皆是。

那么,四中全会后,习近平要如何让每一个案件都能体现“公平正义”,外界将持续观察。

采访编辑/刘惠 后制/钟元

Is China with Rule of Law or is CCP Beyond the Law?

The ongoing Chinese Communist Party (CCP)’s
Fourth Plenary Session includes, for the first time,
the topic of “Rule of Law" in its agenda;
but the outside world appears not too optimistic.
Many are questioning whether CCP members are included
in Party Secretary Xi Jinping’s statement, “No organization
or individual has the right to go beyond the Constitution
or the law", and whether the CCP is above the rule of law.

The topic is attracting wide attention and major media
are exploring whether such rule of law can be implemented
under the CCP dictatorship.

Radio France Internationale (RFI) raised the question:
“Is there Rule of Law or is the CCP Beyond the Law?"
while exposing a series of illegal activities by the CCP
before the opening of the Fourth Plenary Session.
For example, the CCP arrested dozens of people who showed
support for the Occupy Central movement in Hong Kong;
arrested Public Association (Gongmen) founder, Guo Yushan;
and sentenced intellectual, Ilham, to life imprisonment for
caring about the unity of Uygur and Han ethnic groups.

Some scholars believe that the CCP will save its privileges
of being above the Constitution.

Asia’s News Weekly director, Huang Jinqiu:
“The government should follow the spirit of law to manage
the country and all political parties should follow the law."

“the Civil Affairs Bureau, be inspected annually
and pay for the registration fee."
““Party and state enterprises should also be separated,
as you cannot use the country’s money to pay for the Party."

The CCP’s legitimacy of rule has been becoming more
and more questionable in recent years.
He Weifang, Chen Youxi, He Bing and other legal experts
in Beijing stated during a lecture at the China University of
Political Science that the CCP is not a legitimate organization,
as it does not register at the civil affairs department.

Renowned historian, Xin Haonian, also wrote that the CCP,
as a government established on military violence, propaganda,
and who never gives people a channel to express approval
or opposition, is an illegal ruler.

Before the opening of the CCP Fourth Plenary Session,
one of China’s three senior advocates of the rule of law,
86-year-old Guo Daohui told China’s media that
the real rule includes that the ruling party obey the law.

He says the regulations set up by certain departments or
local governments, and documents from the Party committee
are even used to protect the interests of particular groups.

Following such a so-called “law" is only a formality
and it can even be called a crooked, evil law.

Guo Daohui says the most important rule of law is to protect
the fundamental rights of citizens, but China doesn’t even
have a law on protecting human rights.

Although the Chinese Constitution states that, “Citizens have
the freedom of speech, press, assembly, association,
procession and demonstration," and “the right to criticize,
suggest, complain and appeal to the government," most such
rights are not implemented in the law, so when citizens
and social organizations’ rights are violated, they cannot get
help from the judicial system and can only rely on petitioning.

The former CCP leader of Politics and Law Committee,
Zhou Yongkang, has dominated this organization for 10 years.
Zhou once advocated that, “Politics is the main path;
Judiciary is a small skill; a small skill must obey politics",
therefore fundamentally suppressing citizens’ rights.

Today Zhou Yongkang has lost his power and the authorities
are proposing a “Rule of Law"—but will the Party be beyond
the law in the one-Party China?

Beijing constitutional scholar, Chen Yongmiao, told NTD
that as long as there is a CCP, the rule of law is a fantasy.

Chen Yongmiao: “The Soviet Union had also proposed
the rule of law at the end of its rule; it inevitably collapsed."
“To uphold the Party’s leadership is conflicting to
upholding the rule of law."

Huang Jinqiu: “The rule of law needs democracy, without it,
it is a country of dictatorship, like that ruled by Hitler."
“Xi Jinping’s ‘China dream’ can only be realized
when people can use legal channels to resolve issues."

In today’s China ruled by the CCP, there are so many
examples of a lack of a rule of law, such as the arrests of
dissidents concerned about the future of the country,
or of reporters writing the truth, or lawyers helping defend
civil rights cases, or of citizens reporting on corrupt officials,
and people are also being jailed solely for their belief.

How will Xi Jinping resolve every case by following fairness
and justice after the Fourth Plenary session?
—This, the outside world will continue to observe.

Interview & Edit/LiuHui Post-Production/ZhongYuan

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